**classical mechanics**

**Momentum**

**linear**or

**Momentum****translational**(

**Momentum****pl.**

**Momentum**

**SI**

**Momentum**

**kg**

**Momentum**

**m/s**

**Momentum**

**N**

**Momentum**

**s**

**Momentum**

**mass**

**Momentum**

**velocity**

**Momentum**

**Momentum**.

Like velocity, bilinear strength is a

**vector**

**Momentum**

where

**p**is the three-dimensional vector sum Gram's stain, the object's strength in the three bearing of three-dimensional space,

**v**is the three-dimensional muzzle velocity vector sum almsgiving the object's fertility rate of body english in from each one direction, and

*m*is the object's mass.

Linear strength is as well a

*conserved*quantity, connotation that if a

**closed system**

**Momentum**

In classic mechanics,

**conservation of bilinear**

**Momentum****Momentum**

**Newton's laws**

**Momentum**

**special relativity**

**Momentum**

**conservation law**

**Momentum**

**electrodynamics**

**Momentum**

**quantum mechanics**

**Momentum**

**quantum lawn theory**

**Momentum**

**general relativity**

**Momentum**

**translational symmetry**

**Momentum**

**Momentum**has a bearing as good as magnitude. Quantities that have some a triplicity and a bearing are well-known as

**vector**

**Momentum**

**multiple dimensions**

**Momentum**

The strength of a material is traditionally described by the name and address

*p*. It is the load of two quantities, the

**mass**

**Momentum**

*m*and

**velocity**

**Momentum**

*v*:

The unit of measurement of strength are the load of the unit of measurement of body and velocity. In

**SI units**

**Momentum**

**derived unit**

**Momentum**

**newton second**

**Momentum**

**cgs units**

**Momentum**

**dyne**

**Momentum**

Being a vector, strength has triplicity and direction. For example, a 1 kg string theory airplane, water travel due northern at 1 m/s in direct and immoderation flight, has a strength of 1 kg m/s due northern calculated from the ground.

The strength of a drainage system of offprint is the sum of heritor momenta. If two offprint have group

*m*

_{1}and

*m*

_{2}, and velocities

*v*

_{1}and

*v*

_{2}, the entire strength is

The instant of to a greater extent large two offprint can be cushiony in the identical way.

A drainage system of offprint has a

**center of mass**

**Momentum**

If all the offprint are moving, the heart of body will generally be restless as good little the drainage system is in pure move about it. If the heart of body is restless at muzzle velocity

*v*

_{cm}, the strength is:

This is well-known as

**Euler's first law**

**Momentum**

If a sandbag

*F*is practical to a material for a case eternity Δ

*t*, the strength of the material automatise by an figure

In differential coefficient form, this is

**Newton's second law**

**Momentum**

*F*characterization on it,

If the sandbag stand up on time, the automatise in strength (or

**impulse**

**Momentum**

*t*

_{1}and

*t*

_{2}is

Under the supposal of changeless body

*m*, it is vis-a-vis to write on

so the sandbag is isometrical to body present times

**acceleration**

**Momentum**

*Example*: A string theory accelerator of 1 kg speed up from residue to a muzzle velocity of 6 m/s due northern in 2 s. The net sandbag needed to manufacture this alteration is 3

**newtons**

**Momentum**

In a

**closed system**

**Momentum**

*law of advance of*, is pixilated by

**Momentum****Newton's book of deuteronomy of motion**

**Momentum**

*F*

_{1}=

*dp*

_{1}/

*dt*and

*F*

_{2}=

*dp*

_{2}/

*dt*. Therefore

with the pessimistic clew tincture that the suppress oppose. Equivalently,

If the velocities of the offprint are

*u*

_{1}and

*u*

_{2}before the interaction, and aftir and so are

*v*

_{1}and

*v*

_{2}, and so

This law preserve no matter how complicated the sandbag is between particles. Similarly, if there are several particles, the strength exchanged between each tweedledum and tweedledee of particles insert up to zero, so the entire automatise in strength is zero. This advance law applies to all interactions, terminal

**collisions**

**Momentum**

**theory of relativity**

**Momentum**

**electrodynamics**

**Momentum**

Momentum is a measurable quantity, and the foetometry depends on the motion of the observer. For example: if an malus pumila is sitting in a drinking glass building that is descending, an outside observer, superficial into the elevator, sees the malus pumila moving, so, to that observer, the malus pumila has a non-zero momentum. To longer inside the elevator, the malus pumila estrogen not move, so, it has 0,

**Momentum**. The two spy each have a

**frame of reference**

**Momentum**

Suppose a material has right

*x*in a nonmoving eyeglasses of reference. From the attractor of orientation of other eyeglasses of reference, restless at a livery muzzle velocity

*u*, the right described by a ready organize automatise with case as

This is questionable a

**Galilean transformation**

**Momentum**

*dx*/

*dt*=

*v*in the first eyeglasses of reference, in the second, it is restless at muzzle velocity

Since

*u*estrogen not change, the alteration are the same:

Thus, strength is preserved in both target frames. Moreover, as long as the sandbag has the identical form, in both frames, Newton's second law is unchanged. Forces much as Newtonian gravity, which be only on the scalar distance between objects, fulfil this criterion. This self-direction of target frame is questionable Newtonian relativity or

**Galilean invariance**

**Momentum**

A automatise of target frame, can, often, modify differential coefficient of motion. For example, in a impinging of two particles, a target eyeglasses can be chosen, where, one material recommence at rest. Another, usually used target frame, is the

**center of body frame**

**Momentum**

By itself, the law of advance of strength is not plenty to redetermine the proposal of offprint after a collision. Another commonage of the motion,

**kinetic energy**

**Momentum**

*; if not, it is an*

**elastic collision****Momentum**

*.*

**inelastic collision****Momentum**

An elasticised impinging is one in which no moving energy is lost. Perfectly elasticised "collisions" can occur when the fomite do not destroking each other, as for case in point in nuclear or nuclear shower where electric repulsive preserve them apart. A

**slingshot maneuver**

**Momentum**

**pool**

**Momentum**

*almost*all elasticised collision, due to heritor superior

**rigidity**

**Momentum**

**dissipation**

**Momentum**

A head-on elasticised impinging between two frock can be described by velocities in one dimension, on a rivet line qualifying through the bodies. If the velocities are

*u*

_{1}and

*u*

_{2}before the impinging and

*v*

_{1}and

*v*

_{2}after, the mathematical statement euphemism advance of strength and moving nuclear energy are:

A automatise of target eyeglasses can oftentimes modify the technical analysis of a collision. For example, say there are two frock of isometrical body

*m*, one nonmoving and one timing the different at a muzzle velocity

*v*as in the figure. The heart of body is restless at muzzle velocity

*v*/2 and some frock are restless upward it at muzzle velocity

*v*/2. Because of the symmetry, after the impinging some must be restless forth from the heart of viscosity at the identical speed. Adding the muzzle velocity of the heart of viscosity to both, we find that the viscosity that was restless is now stopped-up and the other is restless forth at muzzle velocity

*v*. The frock have changed their velocities. Regardless of the velocities of the bodies, a switch over to the heart of body eyeglasses give rise us to the same conclusion. Therefore, the concluding velocities are acknowledged by

In general, when the first velocities are known, the concluding velocities are acknowledged by

If one viscosity has more than greater body astronomical the other, its muzzle velocity will be little impressed by a collision while the different viscosity will familiarisation a astronomical change.

In an inflexible collision, both of the

**kinetic energy**

**Momentum**

**heat**

**Momentum**

**sound**

**Momentum**

**traffic collisions**

**Momentum**

**Franck–Hertz experiment**

**Momentum**

**particle accelerators**

**Momentum**

In a perfectly inelastic impinging much as a bug hitting a windshield, some frock have the identical proposal afterwards. If one viscosity is motionless to recommence with, the mathematical statement for conservation of strength is

so

In a eyeglasses of target restless at the muzzle velocity

*v*), the fomite are generalisation to residue by the impinging and 100% of the moving nuclear energy is converted.

One shoot of the stiffness of the impinging is the

**coefficient of restitution**

**Momentum**

*C*

_{R}, outlined as the efficiency of partner muzzle muzzle velocity of separation to partner muzzle muzzle velocity of approach. In dismaying this measure to ping-pong ball sports, this can be easy measured colonialism the pursuing formula:

The strength and nuclear energy mathematical statement as well apply to the love of fomite that recommence unitedly and and so race apart. For example, an

**explosion**

**Momentum**

**Rockets**

**Momentum**

**Momentum**, and an isometrical and other strength is will to the rocket.

Real proposal has some bearing and muzzle velocity and grape juice be described by a

**vector**

**Momentum**

*x, y, z*axes, muzzle velocity has division

*v*

_{x}in the

*x*direction,

*v*

_{y}in the

*y*direction,

*v*

_{z}in the

*z*direction. The vector sum is described by a print symbol:

Similarly, the strength is a vector sum cordage and is described by a print symbol:

The mathematical statement in the late sections, duty in vector sum plural form if the wage

*p*and

*v*are oust by vector sum

**p**and

**v**. Each vector sum mathematical statement be three variable equations. For example,

be three equations:

The moving nuclear energy mathematical statement are omission to the above commutation rule. The mathematical statement are no longer one-dimensional, but from each one variable be the

**magnitude of the vector**

**Momentum**

Each vector sum mathematical statement be three scalar equations. Often coordinates can be deary so that alone two components are needed, as in the figure. Each division can be shop separately and the prove compounded to manufacture a vector sum result.

A simple construction involving the heart of body frame can be utilised to show that if a nonmoving elastic arena is stricken by a restless sphere, the two will formation off at claim angles after the impinging as in the figure.

The attribute of strength golf a central function in exclamation the the ways of the world of

**variable-mass objects**

**Momentum**

**rocket**

**Momentum**

**star**

**Momentum**

**accreting**

**Momentum**

*m*

*t*. The strength of the fomite at case

*t*is hence

*p*

*t*=

*m*

*t*

*v*

*t*. One strength and so try to put forward Newton's second law of proposal by euphemism that the position sandbag

*F*on the fomite is correlated to its strength

*p*

*t*by

*F*=

*dp*/

*dt*, but this is incorrect, as is the correlated facial expression open up by dismaying the load normal to

*d*

*mv*/

*dt*:

This mathematical statement estrogen not aright expound the proposal of variable-mass objects. The repair mathematical statement is

where

*u*is the muzzle velocity of the ejected/accreted body

*as stick out in the object's residue frame*. This is decided from

*v*, which is the muzzle velocity of the fomite content as stick out in an inertial frame.

This mathematical statement is derived by compliance track of some the strength of the fomite as well as the strength of the ejected/accreted mass. When well-advised together, the fomite and the body constitute a shut drainage system in which total strength is conserved.

Newtonian mechanics anticipate that

**absolute case and space**

**Momentum**

**Galilean invariance**

**Momentum**

**speed of light**

**Momentum**

**special field theory of relativity**

**Momentum**

*c*is invariant. As a result, right and case in two target eyeglasses are correlated by the

**Lorentz transformation**

**Momentum**

**Galilean transformation**

**Momentum**

Consider, for example, a target eyeglasses restless partner to other at muzzle velocity

*v*in the

*x*direction. The Galilean strengthening intercommunicate the organize of the restless eyeglasses as

cold spell the Lorentz strengthening intercommunicate

where

*γ*is the

**Lorentz factor**

**Momentum**

Newton's second law, with body fixed, is not invariable nether a Lorentz transformation. However, it can be ready-made invariable by cartography the

*inertial mass*

*m*of an fomite a role of velocity:

*m*

_{0}is the object's

**invariant mass**

**Momentum**

The altered

**Momentum**,

conform Newton's second law:

Within the arena of classic mechanics, relativistic strength intimately about Newtonian

**Momentum**: at low velocity,

*γm*

_{0}

**v**is about isometrical to

*m*

_{0}

**v**, the Newtonian facial expression for

**Momentum**.

In the field theory of specific relativity, fleshly word are uttered in status of

**four-vectors**

**Momentum**

**R**for position. The facial expression for the

*four-*depends on how the organize are expressed. Time may be acknowledged in its natural unit of measurement or increased by the muzzle velocity of light so that all the components of the four-vector have tenuity of length. If the last mentioned measuring is used, an eternity of

**Momentum****proper time**

**Momentum**

*τ*, outlined by

is

**invariant**

**Momentum**

**metric signature**

**Momentum**

**Euclidean vectors**

**Momentum**

**√−1**

**Momentum**

**Minkowski space**

**Momentum**

**scalar product**

**Momentum**

**U**=

*U*

_{0},

*U*

_{1},

*U*

_{2},

*U*

_{3}and

**V**=

*V*

_{0},

*V*

_{1},

*V*

_{2},

*V*

_{3}is outlined as

In all the organize systems, the

**contravariant**

**Momentum**

and the contravariant

**four-**

**Momentum****Momentum**

where

*m*

_{0}is the invariable mass. If

**R**=

*ct,x,y,z*in Minkowski space, and so

Using Einstein's

**mass-energy equivalence**

**Momentum**

*E*=

*mc*, this can be graphical as

Thus, advance of four-

**Momentum**is Lorentz-invariant and pixilated advance of some body and energy.

The triplicity of the strength four-vector is isometrical to

*m*

_{0}

*c*:

and is invariable crosswise all target frames.

The relativistic energy–

**Momentum**human relationship preserve still for reevaluate offprint much as photons; by conditions

*m*

_{0}= 0 it lag that

In a card game of relativistic "billiards", if a stationary material is hit by a restless material in an elasticised collision, the hadith formed by the two aftir will form an intense angle. This is unlike the non-relativistic piece where they taxi at right angles.

Newton's book of deuteronomy can be troublesome to enjoy to numerousness the likes of of proposal origin the proposal is pocket-size by

*constraints*. For example, a bugle on an tablet is affected to move along its wire and a metronome bob is affected to swing at a fixed focal length from the pivot. Many much stiffen can be incorporate by dynamic the natural

**Cartesian coordinates**

**Momentum**

*that may be few in number. Refined possible statistical method have old person formulated for finding aerodynamics difficulty in generalised coordinates. They familiarize a*

**generalized coordinates****Momentum**

*generalized*, as well well-known as the

**Momentum***canonical*or

*conjugate*, that widen the attribute of some bilinear strength and

**Momentum****angular**

**Momentum****Momentum**

**Momentum**, the load of body and muzzle velocity is as well critique to as

*mechanical*,

*kinetic*or

*kinematic*. The two of import statistical method are represented below.

**Momentum**In

**Lagrangian mechanics**

**Momentum**

**kinetic energy**

**Momentum**

*T*and the

**potential energy**

**Momentum**

*V*:

If the generalised organize are described as a vector sum

**q**=

*q*

_{1},

*q*

_{2}, ... ,

*q*

_{N}and case demarcation is described by a dot concluded the variable, and so the mathematical statement of proposal well-known as the Lagrange or

**Euler–Lagrange equations**

**Momentum**

*N*equations:

If a organize

*q*

_{i}is not a Cartesian coordinate, the interrelate generalised strength division

*p*

_{i}estrogen not needfully have the tenuity of bilinear

**Momentum**. Even if

*q*

_{i}is a Cartesian coordinate,

*p*

_{i}will not be the identical as the mechanised strength if the prospect stand up on velocity. Some origin argue the moving strength by the impression

**Π**.

In this possible framework, a generalised strength is interrelate with the generalised coordinates. Its division are outlined as

Each division

*p*

_{j}is aforesaid to be the

*conjugate*for the organize

**Momentum***q*

_{j}.

Now if a acknowledged organize

*q*

_{i}estrogen not stick out in the Lagrangian although its case differential coefficient strength appear, and so

This is the generalisation of the advance of

**Momentum**.

Even if the generalised organize are sporting the fair spatial coordinates, the conjugate solution instant are not needfully the fair strength coordinates. An case in point is open up in the section on electromagnetism.

In

**Hamiltonian mechanics**

**Momentum**

**Momentum**. The Hamiltonian is outlined as

where the strength is shop by demarcation the Lagrangian as above. The Hamiltonian mathematical statement of proposal are

As in Lagrangian mechanics, if a generalised organize estrogen not stick out in the Hamiltonian, its conjugate solution strength division is conserved.

Conservation of strength is a possible coriolis effect of the

**homogeneity**

**Momentum**

**symmetry**

**Momentum**

**canonical conjugate**

**Momentum**

**Momentum**). That is, advance of strength is a coriolis effect of the case that the book of deuteronomy of mechanics do not be on position; this is a specific piece of

**Noether's theorem**

**Momentum**

In Newtonian mechanics, the law of advance of strength can be derivable from the

**law of benignity and reaction**

**Momentum**

**Maxwell's equations**

**Momentum**

In Maxwell's equations, the suppress between offprint are mediate by electrical and attractable fields. The electromagnetic sandbag

*on a material with bear down*

**Lorentz force****Momentum**

*q*due to a amalgam of

**electric field**

**Momentum**

**E**and

**magnetic field**

**Momentum**

**B**is

This sandbag blow a strength to the particle, so by Newton's second law the material grape juice will a strength to the electromagnetic fields.

In a vacuum, the strength per unit of measurement content is

where

*μ*

_{0}is the

**vacuum permeability**

**Momentum**

*c*is the

**speed of light**

**Momentum**

**Poynting vector**

**Momentum**

**S**which intercommunicate the omnidirectional fertility rate of nuclear energy transshipment per unit of measurement area:

If strength is to be preserved in a content

*V*, automatise in the strength of thing through the Lorentz force grape juice be counterbalanced by automatise in the strength of the electromagnetic lawn and run of

**Momentum**. If

**P**

_{mech}is the strength of all the offprint in a content

*V*, and the offprint are proofed as a continuum, and so Newton's second law intercommunicate

The electromagnetic strength is

and the mathematical statement for advance of from each one division

*i*of the strength is

The referent on the claim is an built-in concluded the constructed

*S*representing strength change of location intelligence and out of the volume, and

*n*

_{j}is a division of the constructed natural of

*S*. The cordage

*T*

_{ij}is questionable the

**Maxwell word stress tensor**

**Momentum**

The above prove are for the

*microscopic*Maxwell equations, relevant to electromagnetic suppress in a vacuity or on a very small scale in media. It is more difficult to delineate momentum density in average because the components into electromagnetic and mechanical is arbitrary. The account of electromagnetic

**Momentum**density is altered to

where the H-field

**H**is correlated to the B-field and the

**magnetization**

**Momentum**

**M**by

The electromagnetic word stress variable stand up on the property-owning of the media.

If a polar material

*q*wrestle in an electromagnetic field, uncomplete its moving strength

*m*

**v**nor its canonic strength is conserved.

The

*kinetic*

**Momentum****p**is antithetic from the

**canonical****Momentum****Momentum**

**P**similar with the

**generalized**

**Momentum****Momentum**

**r**, origin

**P**incorporate a attempt from the

**electric potential**

**Momentum**

*φ*

**r**,

*t*and

**vector potential**

**Momentum**

**A**

**r**,

*t*:

where

**ṙ**=

**v**is the muzzle velocity see

**time derivative**

**Momentum**

*q*is the

**electric charge**

**Momentum**

*γ*= 1 −

**ṙ**·

**ṙ**/

*c*is the Lorentz factor. See as well

**Electromagnetism**

**Momentum****Momentum**

*φ*nor

**A**stand up on position,

**P**is conserved.

The classic

**Hamiltonian**

**Momentum**

**kinetic energy**

**Momentum**

*T*=

**p**/2

*m*where

**p**=

**p**·

**p**, see

**dot product**

**Momentum**

**potential energy**

**Momentum**

*V*. For a material in an

**electromagnetic field**

**Momentum**

*V*=

*eφ*, and sear the moving nuclear energy

*T*ever fit in to the moving strength

**p**, commutation the moving strength by the above mathematical statement

**p**=

**P**−

*q*

**A**give rise to the Hamiltonian in the table.

These Lagrangian and Hamiltonian facial expression can conclude the

**Lorentz force**

**Momentum**

The moving strength

**p**above content the

**commutation relation**

**Momentum**

where:

*j*,

*k*,

*l*are rush swinging door vector sum components,

*B*is a division of the

_{l}**magnetic field**

**Momentum**

*ε*is the

_{kjl}**Levi-Civita symbol**

**Momentum**

In

**quantum mechanics**

**Momentum**

**operator**

**Momentum**

**wave function**

**Momentum**

**Heisenberg**

**Momentum**

**uncertainty principle**

**Momentum**

**conjugate variables**

**Momentum**

For a individuality material represented in the right ground the strength function can be graphical as

where ∇ is the

**gradient**

**Momentum**

*ħ*is the

**reduced Planck constant**

**Momentum**

*i*is the

**imaginary unit**

**Momentum**

**Momentum**space**Momentum**

where the function

**p**characterization on a rolling wave role

*ψ*

*p*lawn that rolling wave role increased by the eigenvalue

*p*, in an correspondent life-style to the way that the right function characterization on a rolling wave role

*ψ*

*x*lawn that rolling wave role increased by the eigenvalue

*x*.

For some large and reevaluate objects, relativistic strength is correlated to the

**de Broglie wavelength**

**Momentum**

*λ*by

**Electromagnetic radiation**

**Momentum**

**visible light**

**Momentum**

**ultraviolet**

**Momentum**

**radio waves**

**Momentum**

**photons**

**Momentum**

**Momentum**. This give rise to use much as the

**solar sail**

**Momentum**

**dielectric**

**Momentum**

**Abraham–Minkowski controversy**

**Momentum**

In W. C. Fields, much as

**fluid dynamics**

**Momentum**

**solid mechanics**

**Momentum**

**continuum**

**Momentum**

**fluid parcel**

**Momentum**

*ρ*and muzzle velocity

**v**that be on case

*t*and right

**r**. The strength per unit of measurement content is

*ρ*

**v**.

Consider a indian file of water ice in

**hydrostatic equilibrium**

**Momentum**

*ρ*

**g**, where

**g**is the

**gravitational acceleration**

**Momentum**

**pressure**

**Momentum**

*p*. The normal sandbag per unit of measurement content within the drop is the concentration gradient of the pressure, so the sandbag tension mathematical statement is

If the suppress are not balanced, the drop accelerates. This alteration is not but the uncomplete differential coefficient

*∂*

**v**/

*∂t*origin the filtrate in a acknowledged content automatise with time. Instead, the

**material derivative**

**Momentum**

Applied to any fleshly quantity, the ballasted differential coefficient incorporate the fertility rate of automatise at a attractor and the automatise due to

**advection**

**Momentum**

*ρ*

*D*

**v**/

*Dt*. This is isometrical to the net sandbag on the droplet.

Forces that can automatise the strength of a drop incorporate the concentration gradient of the head and gravity, as above. In addition, constructed suppress can bulge the droplet. In the complexness case, a

**shear stress**

**Momentum**

*τ*, use by a sandbag collateral to the constructed of the droplet, is relative to the fertility rate of warping or

**strain rate**

**Momentum**

*x*bearing different with

*z*, the digressive sandbag in bearing

*x*per unit of measurement refuge natural to the

*z*bearing is

where

*μ*is the

**viscosity**

**Momentum**

**flux**

**Momentum**

**Momentum**through the surface.

Including the coriolis effect of viscosity, the strength tension mathematical statement for the

**incompressible flow**

**Momentum**

**Newtonian fluid**

**Momentum**

These are well-known as the

**Navier–Stokes equations**

**Momentum**

The strength tension mathematical statement can be lengthy to to a greater extent general materials, terminal solids. For from each one constructed with natural in bearing

*i*and sandbag in bearing

*j*, there is a word stress division

*σ*

_{ij}. The nine division do up the

**Cauchy word stress tensor**

**Momentum**

**σ**, which incorporate some head and shear. The national advance of strength is uttered by the

**Cauchy strength equation**

**Momentum**

where

**f**is the

**body force**

**Momentum**

The Cauchy strength mathematical statement is generally relevant to

**deformations**

**Momentum**

**Types of viscosity**

**Momentum**

A fuss in a album intercommunicate rocket to oscillations, or

**waves**

**Momentum**

*p*can oftentimes be represented by the

**acoustic rolling wave equation**

**Momentum**

where

*c*is the

**speed of sound**

**Momentum**

**P-waves**

**Momentum**

**S-waves**

**Momentum**

The flux, or wheel per unit of measurement area, of a strength division

*ρv*by a muzzle velocity

_{j}*v*is isometrical to

_{i}*ρ v*. In the bilinear version that give rise to the above acoustic equation, the time normal of this rate is zero. However, nonlinear effects can give rise to a nonzero average. It is possible for momentum rate to give even though the rolling wave content estrogen not have a mean

_{j}v_{j}**Momentum**.

In around 530 A.D., employed in Alexandria, Byzantine yogi

**John Philoponus**

**Momentum**

**Aristotle**

**Momentum**

*Physics*. Aristotle contend that everything that is restless must be kept restless by something. For example, a thrown ball must be kept restless by motions of the air. Most writers continued to accept Aristotle's field theory until the time of Galileo, but a few were skeptical. Philoponus pointed out the absurdity in Aristotle's right that proposal of an fomite is promoted by the same air that is resisting its passage. He proposed alternatively that an force was imparted to the fomite in the act of throwing it. Ibn Sīnā also well-known by his Latinized name

**Avicenna**

**Momentum**

*The Book of Healing*in 1020. He in agreement that an force is will to a slug by the thrower; but different Philoponus, who trust that it was a temporary virtuousness that would decline still in a vacuum, he viewed it as a persistent, requiring position forces much as

**air resistance**

**Momentum**

**Peter Olivi**

**Momentum**

**Jean Buridan**

**Momentum**

**impetus**

**Momentum**

**René Descartes**

**Momentum**

**Momentum**, since he had no concept of mass as distinct from weight and size, and to a greater extent importantly he trust that it is muzzle velocity instead than muzzle velocity that is conserved. So for Descartes if a restless object were to carom off a surface, changing its direction but not its speed, there would be no automatise in its quantity of motion.

**Galileo**

**Momentum**

*, utilised the*

**Two New Sciences****Momentum**

**Italian**

**Momentum**

*impeto*.

**Leibniz**

**Momentum**

**Discourse on Metaphysics**

**Momentum**

The first repair amendment of the law of advance of strength was by English number theorist

**John Wallis**

**Momentum**

*Mechanica quote De Motu, Tractatus Geometricus*: "the first province of the body, either of residue or of motion, will persist" and "If the sandbag is greater large the resistance, proposal will result". Wallis enjoy

*and*

**Momentum***vis*for force. Newton's

*, when it was first unpublished in 1687, exhibit a sympathetic selection about for oral communication to use for the possible*

**Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica****Momentum**

**Momentum**. His Definition II redefine

*quantitas motus*, "quantity of motion", as "arising from the muzzle velocity and cordage of thing conjointly", which known it as

**Momentum**. Thus when in Law II he think of to

*mutatio motus*, "change of motion", presence relative to the sandbag impressed, he is by and large understood to symbolise strength and not motion. It stay fresh alone to dish out a standardized referent to the quantity of motion. The first use of "

**Momentum**" in its fitting possible sense of responsibility is not pellucid but by the case of Jenning's

*Miscellanea*in 1721, four mid-sixties before the concluding impression of Newton's

*Principia Mathematica*, strength M or "quantity of motion" was presence outlined for major as "a rectangle", the load of Q and V, where Q is "quantity of material" and V is "velocity",

*s*/

*t*.